Vehicle Modeling by Subsystems Computer simulations have become very popular in the automotive industry. A decision on reversible metal hydride R&D is scheduled to be made in the fourth quarter of 2010 as well as a decision point on chemical hydrogen storage R&D. Systems configurations no longer demonstrated to be optimal should be abandoned in favor of best proven technology. Cost projections are not currently available and would greatly depend on the process steps for producing a capacitor, which are still under investigation. 2008. The ACEC technical team continues to do a good job with this close coordination. In making cost projections, the assumptions are many and in some cases are based on still-unproven laboratory-phase performance. Available on the Web at . Even though the DOE uses the system model principally for the purpose of costing and not system performance, the model should be representative of the actual system. The VT efforts for PHEVs are directed at developing higher-energy batteries that meet the targets (see Table 3-4) established by the DOE and USABC for commercial viability. that the program has focused exclusively on the modulating inverter topology and may be missing the advantages of separating the two functions. The new emission standards will require that the vehicle emission target will need to be changed from Tier 2 Bin 5 to Tier 2 Bin 2. (Tesla is an expensive sports car that does not meet the target goals of the Partnership.) vehicles, they cost less and offer field weakening over a wider speed range. Although the details of the motor and motor controller are proprietary, the motor controller and motor are reported to have efficiencies of greater than 90 percent and greater than 93 percent, respectively, for a combined efficiency near 85 percent, which is truly remarkable at such speeds and frequencies. Of 120 materials and classes of materials examined to date, 15 percent were selected for continued study. Given the fact that the completion dates for the other three COEs and a number of independent projects fall within FY 2010, this COE will have a critical role in capturing the progress for a sustained activity during any transition period. Hydrogen storage has been an R&D priority for the DOE for less than a decade. There is still room for improvement in the operating temperature range and cold-cranking capability. A peak engine efficiency of 45 percent has been achieved for a hydrogen-fueled ICE. When computed over 6 years using an 8 percent discount rate for future savings, the resulting net present value (NPV) for the redesign is $335. The largest barrier to implementing advanced combustion, aftertreatment, and fuel technologies continues to be an insufficient knowledge base. The primary focus of the hydrogen storage program within the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership is to drive the development and demonstration of commercially viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. The research work supported is high-risk and potentially important for meeting national energy and emission objectives. The study clearly shows that the cost goals established are very aggressive, and it may be difficult to achieve them using the present chemistries. Power electronics also require capacitors and solders, and in some cases their temperature limits the operation of power electronics. A breakdown of how the FY 2009 funding was dispersed among different organizations and technologies is shown in Figure 3-1. Federal Grant Number: DE-FC36-04GO14283, Stephen Lasher, Kurtis McKenney, and Jayanti Sinha, TIAX LLC, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Reference: D0268; Rajesh Ahluwalia, Thanh Hua, and J-K Peng, Argonne National Laboratory. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) NOx reduction, Potential catalyst identification for HC NOx catalysis, Improved computational fluid dynamic (CFD) capabilities. There are. The set of linkages in between the engine and the wheels constitute the drive train. They should also conduct a study to determine the cost of recycling and the potential of savings from recycled materials. The automobile has always been a harsh environment for electronic design and signal fidelity. SOURCE: Available at . The major systems of an automobile are the engine, fuel system, exhaust system, cooling system, lubrication system, electrical system, transmission, and the chassis. Such a design is being considered by Toyota in a plug-in version of the Prius. The targets for the project on magnesium power-train components have been to replace aluminum components with magnesium for a minimum weight savings of 15 percent and a cost penalty of less than $2.00 for each pound saved. Furthermore, in view of the fact that the hydrogen storage program has been in place for less than a decade, the Partnership should strongly support continuing the funding of basic research activities. In this program alone, the 8 years of funding has resulted in three cost-shared solicitations, resulting in many R&D contracts ranging from early programmatically focused efforts, to “go/no-go” milestone-based R&D. Scalable Inverter. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. A DOE hydrogen program solicitation was issued for R&D for onboard vehicular hydrogen storage to support the COE or as independent projects (2008). At this time, no material has been found that meets the requirements for gravimetric and volumetric capacities, hydrogen release and uptake rates at acceptable temperatures and pressures, cycle life, impurity tolerance and release, and costs. Although over the cost target, the outcome was judged as demonstrating that magnesium was both technically feasible and potentially cost-effective in these applications. The Partnership should consider conducting a project to investigate induction motors as replacements for the permanent magnet motors now almost universally used for electric propulsion. The simulation currently being used is KIVA III, developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, a large number of auto companies have announced their intention to launch HEVs, PHEVs, and BEVs using Li-ion batteries in the next few years. Information for physical storage is shown in Figure 3-4 for both ambient and cryo-based systems. However, the results showed that the material had too low a flux density and was prohibitively more expensive (four times the cost of silicon steel).20. Components. If the price of oil doubles, for example, the incentive to use carbon fibers in cars will increase because of the reduction in weight, but the cost of the polyolefin and therefore the carbon fiber will also increase. Furthermore, supply chain R&D and manufacturing concepts might require funding for the high-risk initiatives. The emphasis on “net carbon emissions” and “environmental freedom” suggests that carbon dioxide (CO2) and other emissions from the production and consumption of alternative fuels or electricity should be reduced, through highly efficient processes, to minimize adverse environmental effects. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: Third Report, http://www.altdotenergy.com/2009/02/sandia-gm-study-finds-large-scale-biofuel-is-sustainable/, http://www.exxonmobil.com/Corporate/energy_climate_con_vehicle_algae.aspx, http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/review09/program_overview_2009_amr.pdf, http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/annual_review.html, http://www.whitehouse.gov/agenda/energy_and_environment/, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/mypp/3-2_hybr_elec_prop.pdf, Electric Propulsion and Electrical Systems, http://www.hybridcars.com/news/mercedes-lithium-ion-hybrid-2009.html, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/program/plug-in_summary_rpt.pdf, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/program/phev_rd_plan_june_2007.pdf, http://japancorp.net/Article.Asp?Art_ID=19769, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/merit_review_2009/light-weight_materials/lm_05_warren.pdf, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/cyro_compressed_auto.pdf>, http://www.dynalook.com/european-conf-2009/B-V-03.pdf, http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/mypp/, http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/news_h-prize_administrator.html>, http://hydrogendoedev.nrel.gov/pdfs/progress09/2009_doe_hydrogen_program_annual_progress_report_cover.pdf, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/merit_review_2009/advanced_power_electronics/ape_08_elrefaie.pdf, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/program/2008_energy_storage.pdf, http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/review09/fc_30_james.pdf, http://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/energystorage/pdfs/43166.pdf, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/merit_review_2009/advanced_power_electronics/ape_0_rogers.pdf- 916.8KB, http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/review09/fc_31_sinha.pdf, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/merit_review_2009/advanced_power_electronics/ape_07_taylor.pdf, Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members, Appendix B: Committee's Interim Letter Report, Appendix D: Recommendations from National Research Council Review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Research Program, Phase 2, Appendix E: Committee Meetings and Presentations. The announcement of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering COE (2009) was made. The activities have been coordinated directly by the fuel cell technical team organized under the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership Executive Steering Group (ESG). There should be an effort to anticipate hydrogen storage material property and performance requirements that will place demands on developed systems—for example, purity and response to impurities, aging and lifetime prediction, and safety in adverse environments. The presence of permanent magnets may result in a catastrophic failure if, during driving, there is a short circuit of the winding or a failure of insulation. All of these changes will force an evolution in engine and power-train design, and consequently, the optimal power-train configuration, operating scenario, and fuel characteristics will also evolve. As this technology is not yet fully developed, advancements are needed to meet the established efficiency, durability, lifetime, and cost targets. The Partnership has appropriately focused on key technical areas that are precompetitive with the objective of long-term reductions in size (volume and. LFEE 2008-05 RP (July). Pennsylvania State University: This activity uses a flat-panel display glass as a dielectric material and aluminum electrodes. An additional 50 percent weight savings of 115 lbs may be possible from downsizing brakes, suspension, engine, power train, and wheels and tires. As the number of potential vehicle fuel cell manufacturers has been reduced in the current (2009) time frame, it is extremely important to maintain continuity and commitment regarding fuel cell technology from the perspective of the United States. 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